Original Research

Incidence of cardiometabolic diseases in a Lesotho HIV cohort: Evidence for policy decision-making

Motlalepula Sebilo, Neo R.T. Ledibane, Simbarashe Takuva
Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine | Vol 22, No 1 | a1246 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhivmed.v22i1.1246 | © 2021 Motlalepula Sebilo, Neo R.T. Ledibane, Simbarashe Takuva | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 16 March 2021 | Published: 28 June 2021

About the author(s)

Motlalepula Sebilo, School of Health Systems and Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; and, Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation, Maseru, Lesotho
Neo R.T. Ledibane, School of Health Systems and Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
Simbarashe Takuva, School of Health Systems and Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; and, Perinatal HIV Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa


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Abstract

Background: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been associated with the development of certain cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs). The burden of CMDs amongst ART-experienced patients in sub-Saharan Africa was unknown.

Objective: We quantified the burden of CMDs and identified the associated risk factors in a large treatment cohort on ART at a high-volume facility in Lesotho.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we extracted data from the daily dispensing electronic system and routine clinical records of 785 adults on ART between 2011 and 2015 in Maseru, Lesotho. CMD was defined as a diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or dyslipidaemia (singly or collectively). Descriptive statistics were used to describe the disease burden; Kaplan–Meier curves and cause-specific Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to examine the impact of the ART regimen and identify the risk factors associated with the occurrence of CMD.

Results: Of the 785 participants, 473 (60%) were women. The median age of the group was 42 years, interquartile range (IQR), 36–51 years. The overall incidence of CMD was 5.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.4–7.1) per 100 person-months of follow-up. The median time to onset of CMD was 16.6 months (IQR = 7.4–23.4). ART was not associated with the occurrence of CMD (cause-specific hazard ratio [CHR] = 1.55; 95% CI = 0.14–16.85; P = 0.72). Higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with the occurrence of diabetes mellitus (CHR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.14–1.38; P = 0.026).

Conclusion: The incidence of CMD in this relatively young patient population is low yet noteworthy. We recommend that patients living with HIV and AIDS should be routinely screened for CMD. Higher BMI is generally associated with the occurrence of CMD.


Keywords

AIDS; antiretroviral treatment; cardiometabolic disease; HIV; incidence rate; Lesotho

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