Case Report

Progressive HIV infection in the presence of a raised CD4+ count: HIV/HTLV-1 co-infection

Ahmad Farid Haeri Mazanderani, Osman Ebrahim
Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine | Vol 14, No 2 | a85 | DOI: | © 2013 Ahmad Farid Haeri Mazanderani, Osman Ebrahim | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 12 December 2013 | Published: 04 June 2013

About the author(s)

Ahmad Farid Haeri Mazanderani, Department of Medical Virology, University of Pretoria & National Health Laboratory Service, Tshwane Academic Division, Pretoria, South Africa, South Africa
Osman Ebrahim, Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, South Africa

Share this article

Bookmark and Share


There are a number of pathophysiological causes for a normal or raised CD4 count in the context of progressive HIV infection. These include various co-infections, previous splenectomy, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Such circumstances can both confound HIV diagnosis and delay initiation of chemoprophylaxis and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We describe the case of a patient co-infected with HIV and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) who, prior to HAART initiation, was found to have progressive immune deficiency associated with a raised CD4 count.


HIV; HTLV-1; CD4 count; antiretrovirals


Total abstract views: 2670
Total article views: 8447


Crossref Citations

1. HTLV-1, ATLL, refractory hypercalcaemia and HIV-1 co-infection
Abdullah E Laher, Feroza Motara, Muhammed Moolla, Osman Ebrahim
Oxford Medical Case Reports  vol: 2018  issue: 1  year: 2018  
doi: 10.1093/omcr/omx081