Case Report

Progressive HIV infection in the presence of a raised CD4+ count: HIV/HTLV-1 co-infection

Ahmad Farid Haeri Mazanderani, Osman Ebrahim
Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine | Vol 14, No 2 | a85 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhivmed.v14i2.85 | © 2013 Ahmad Farid Haeri Mazanderani, Osman Ebrahim | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 12 December 2013 | Published: 04 June 2013

About the author(s)

Ahmad Farid Haeri Mazanderani, Department of Medical Virology, University of Pretoria & National Health Laboratory Service, Tshwane Academic Division, Pretoria, South Africa, South Africa
Osman Ebrahim, Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, South Africa


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Abstract

There are a number of pathophysiological causes for a normal or raised CD4 count in the context of progressive HIV infection. These include various co-infections, previous splenectomy, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Such circumstances can both confound HIV diagnosis and delay initiation of chemoprophylaxis and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We describe the case of a patient co-infected with HIV and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) who, prior to HAART initiation, was found to have progressive immune deficiency associated with a raised CD4 count.


Keywords

HIV; HTLV-1; CD4 count; antiretrovirals

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