Original Research

Tobacco smoking and associated factors in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults attending human immunodeficiency virus clinics in the Western Cape province, South Africa

Muyunda Mutemwa, Nasheeta Peer, Anniza de Villiers, Mieke Faber, Andre-Pascal Kengne
Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine | Vol 21, No 1 | a1072 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhivmed.v21i1.1072 | © 2020 Muyunda Mutemwa, Nasheeta Peer, Anniza de Villiers, Mieke Faber, Andre-Pascal Kengne | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 15 January 2020 | Published: 21 April 2020

About the author(s)

Muyunda Mutemwa, Non-Communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa
Nasheeta Peer, Non-Communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; and, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
Anniza de Villiers, Research Capacity Development Division, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa
Mieke Faber, Non-Communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa
Andre-Pascal Kengne, Non-Communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; and, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa


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Abstract

Background: In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, smoking increases both HIV-related and non-related negative health outcomes.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence and associations of smoking in HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy at public healthcare facilities in the Western Cape province, South Africa.

Methods: Participants comprised 827 HIV-infected patients, who were > 18 years old and randomly selected from 17 HIV healthcare facilities. Self-reported smoking was defined as smoking tobacco daily or occasionally. Serum cotinine levels confirmed smoking status.

Results: Participants included 653 women and 174 men. The overall mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 38.9 (9.0) years, 41.1 (8.9) years in men and 37.7 (8.9) years in women (p ˂ 0.001). The median diagnosed duration of HIV infection was 5 years. Smoking prevalence was 22% overall, and 26% in men and 21% in women (p = 0.022). The prevalence of former smoking was 14%. About a quarter of participants (185/751; 24.6%) had serum cotinine levels > 100 mg/mL with similar prevalence of high levels across smoking status (current smokers: 27.2%, former smokers: 29.6% and never smokers: 22.7%, p = 0.564) and did not vary by age, gender, cluster of differentiation 4 count or known duration of HIV. There was no agreement between self-reports and cotinine levels at ranking smoking exposure.

Conclusions: Prevalence of current tobacco smoking in HIV-infected patients on care is within the range of that in the general population. This highlights the potential missed opportunity or challenges of co-addressing smoking cessation in individuals already in regular contact with the health system.


Keywords

HIV and AIDS; smoking; cotinine; prevalence; South Africa

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