Original Research

Depression, sleep quality and condom use amongst Iranian people living with human immunodeficiency virus

Marzieh Mahboobi, Arezu Najafi, Amin Nakhostin-Ansari, Parvin Afsar Kazerooni, Matin Bazargani, Fatemeh Navaiian, Samaneh Akbarpour
Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine | Vol 21, No 1 | a1150 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhivmed.v21i1.1150 | © 2020 Marzieh Mahboobi, Arezu Najafi, Amin Nakhostin-Ansari, Parvin Afsar Kazerooni, Matin Bazargani, Fatemeh Navaiian, Samaneh Akbarpour | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 11 August 2020 | Published: 15 December 2020

About the author(s)

Marzieh Mahboobi, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran, Islamic Republic of
Arezu Najafi, Occupational Sleep Research Center, Baharloo Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Islamic Republic of
Amin Nakhostin-Ansari, Sports Medicine Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Islamic Republic of
Parvin Afsar Kazerooni, Center for Communicable Disease Control, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran, Islamic Republic of
Matin Bazargani, HIV Expert of Deputy of Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Islamic Republic of
Fatemeh Navaiian, HIV Expert of Deputy of Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Islamic Republic of
Samaneh Akbarpour, Occupational Sleep Research Center, Baharloo Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Islamic Republic of


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Abstract

Background: Depression is a common mood disorder in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) and is associated with risk-taking sexual behaviour.

Objectives: This study examines depression, sleep quality and condom usage amongst PLWH in Tehran, Iran.

Method: This cross-sectional study was undertaken between October and November 2019 on 298 PLWH referred to voluntary counselling and testing centres (VCTs) in Tehran. Participants provided information as per the following questionnaires: the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Questionnaire and a demographic questionnaire that evaluated condom use.

Results: A total of 298 PLWH, of whom 202 (67.8%) were men with a mean age of 39.81 years, were enrolled in the study. The DASS classified 57% with depression. Fewer than 20% of these used condoms regularly. The majority of depressed patients were men (68.6%) and 31.4% were women. The depressed patients were more likely not to use condoms than those who were not depressed (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 6.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.70–11.42). The adjusted OR for not using a condom amongst the depressed was 7.12 times greater (95% CI, 5.85–10.11) than in those without depression.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that depression is common amongst PLWH in Tehran and is associated with risk-taking sexual behaviour. Appropriate interventions are needed to address mental disorders in PLWH. It is recommended that patients be screened regularly for symptoms of depression and, where indicated, counselled and managed.


Keywords

Depression; condom use; HIV; Iran; sleep

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