Original Research

The influence of HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment on pulmonary function in individuals in an urban setting in sub-Saharan Africa

Oda E. van den Berg, Erica J. Shaddock, Sarah L. Stacey, Charles Feldman, Roos E. Barth, Diederick E. Grobbee, Willem D.F. Venter, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Alinda G. Vos
Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine | Vol 22, No 1 | a1312 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhivmed.v22i1.1312 | © 2021 Oda Everdina van den Berg, Erica Jeanie Shaddock, Sarah Lynn Stacey, Charles Feldman, Roos Emilie Barth, Diederick E Grobbee, Willem Daniel Francois Venter, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Alinda G Vos | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 08 September 2021 | Published: 15 November 2021

About the author(s)

Oda E. van den Berg, Julius Global Health, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the, Netherlands
Erica J. Shaddock, Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, Division of Pulmonology and Critical Care, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
Sarah L. Stacey, Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, Division of Pulmonology and Critical Care, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
Charles Feldman, Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, Division of Pulmonology and Critical Care, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
Roos E. Barth, Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands
Diederick E. Grobbee, Julius Global Health, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the, Netherlands
Willem D.F. Venter, Ezintsha, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Julius Global Health, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands; and Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
Alinda G. Vos, Julius Global Health, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands; and, Ezintsha, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa


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Abstract

Background: With the roll-out of antiretroviral treatment (ART), the life expectancy of people with HIV and, hence, morbidity from non-communicable diseases, including pulmonary diseases, have increased.

Objectives: This research study aims to investigate whether HIV infection and ART use are associated with pulmonary function, given the high frequency of pulmonary infections, including tuberculosis (TB), associated with HIV.

Method: Adults living with HIV (ART-naïve, on first- or second-line ART), and age and sex matched HIV-negative controls were included in a cross-sectional study in Johannesburg, South Africa. Spirometry was performed to determine lung function, measuring the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), the forced vital capacity (FVC) and the FEV1/FVC ratio before (pre), and after (post), short-acting bronchodilator. The association of HIV infection and ART use with pulmonary function was analysed using linear regression models, adjusting for age, gender, body surface area (BSA), employment, education, smoking and TB.

Results: Overall, 548 participants (62% women) were included with a mean age of 38 (standard deviation [s.d.] 9.5) years. No effect of HIV or ART on post-FEV1 was observed in adjusted analysis. Additional adjustment for TB resulted in a higher post-FEV1 in participants on ART compared with HIV-negative participants, whereas TB was associated with a lower FEV1. No effect of HIV and ART on post-FEV1/FVC was observed.

Conclusion: HIV infection and ART use were not associated with reduced pulmonary function in this urban African population. Tuberculosis showed a mediating effect on the association between HIV, ART and pulmonary function.


Keywords

HIV; antiretroviral therapy; tuberculosis; spirometry; sub-Saharan Africa; obstructive lung disorder; COPD; asthma; pulmonary function

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