Original Research

Determinants of health-related quality of life in young adults living with perinatally acquired HIV infection in Botswana

Grace Karugaba, Gloria Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Mary M. Moleki, Onkabetse V. Mabikwa, Mogomotsi Matshaba
Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine | Vol 23, No 1 | a1362 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhivmed.v23i1.1362 | © 2022 Grace Karugaba, Gloria Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Mary M. Moleki, Onkabetse V. Mabikwa, Mogomotsi Matshaba | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 17 December 2021 | Published: 29 April 2022

About the author(s)

Grace Karugaba, Department of Health Studies, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa; Botswana-Baylor Children’s Clinical Centre of Excellence, Gaborone, Botswana
Gloria Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Department of Health Studies, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa
Mary M. Moleki, Department of Health Studies, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa
Onkabetse V. Mabikwa, Department of Mathematics and Statistical Sciences, Botswana International University of Science and Technology, Palapye, Botswana
Mogomotsi Matshaba, Botswana-Baylor Children’s Clinical Centre of Excellence, Gaborone, Botswana; Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States


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Abstract

Background: Due to the successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme in Botswana, large numbers of perinatally HIV-infected adolescents are emerging into young adulthood. Young adulthood is a critical period of human development. However, there is lack of information on the factors affecting the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of young adults living with perinatally acquired HIV (YALPH) in Botswana.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the HRQOL and its determinants among YALPH who were enrolled on ART at Botswana-Baylor Children’s Clinical Centre of Excellence in Gaborone, Botswana.

Method: A cross-sectional study assessed the HRQOL of 509 YALPH aged 18–30 years using the WHOQOL-HIV BREF. Data about other variables of interest were abstracted from medical records. Bivariate analyses were performed using t and Chi-square tests to determine the associations between demographic and clinical variables and general HRQOL. The variables that were associated with the general HRQOL at P-value < 0.1 were included in the multivariable analysis using the logistic regression approach.

Results: The majority of participants had good general HRQOL (78.4%). The highest mean HRQOL score was in the Physical domain (5.4 [± 2.9]) and the lowest in the Environment domain (13.8 [± 2.7]). The factors that were significantly associated with the general HRQOL included: level of education attained (P = 0.012), employment status (P = 0.069), viral load suppression (P = 0.073) and self-reported illness (P = 0.001).

Conclusion: Interventions that effectively increase educational attainment, employment opportunities, ART adherence, and prevention or management of illness are needed to promote good HRQOL among YALPH in Botswana.


Keywords

perinatal HIV; young adulthood; health-related quality of life; ART; Botswana

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