Original Research

The prevalence of multimorbidity in virally suppressed HIV-positive patients in Limpopo

Limakatso Lebina, Tumiso Malatji, Firdaus Nabeemeeah, Kegaugetswe Motsomi, Tsundzukani Siwelana, Khuthadzo Hlongwane, Neil Martinson
Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine | Vol 24, No 1 | a1495 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhivmed.v24i1.1495 | © 2023 Limakatso Lebina, Tumiso Malatji, Firdaus Nabeemeeah, Kegaugetswe Motsomi, Tsundzukani Siwelana, Khuthadzo Hlongwane, Neil Martinson | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 23 March 2023 | Published: 18 September 2023

About the author(s)

Limakatso Lebina, Perinatal HIV Research Unit, SAMRC Soweto Matlosana Collaborating Centre for HIV/AIDS and TB, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; and, Clinical Research Department, Africa Health Research Institute, Durban, South Africa
Tumiso Malatji, Department of Public Health Medicine, University of Limpopo, Polokwane, South Africa
Firdaus Nabeemeeah, Perinatal HIV Research Unit, SAMRC Soweto Matlosana Collaborating Centre for HIV/AIDS and TB, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
Kegaugetswe Motsomi, Perinatal HIV Research Unit, SAMRC Soweto Matlosana Collaborating Centre for HIV/AIDS and TB, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
Tsundzukani Siwelana, Perinatal HIV Research Unit, SAMRC Soweto Matlosana Collaborating Centre for HIV/AIDS and TB, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
Khuthadzo Hlongwane, Perinatal HIV Research Unit, SAMRC Soweto Matlosana Collaborating Centre for HIV/AIDS and TB, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
Neil Martinson, Perinatal HIV Research Unit, SAMRC Soweto Matlosana Collaborating Centre for HIV/AIDS and TB, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; and, Center for TB Research, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, United States of America

Abstract

Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are an emerging global public health problem.

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of NCDs and their risk factors among adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Method: This was a cross-sectional study (July 2019 – January 2020) in Limpopo, South Africa. Patients were enrolled if they were ≥ 40 years, HIV-positive, and virologically suppressed on ART. Data were analysed descriptively, and a binomial regression model was used to identify risk factors for NCDs.

Results: The majority of participants (65%; 319/488) were women. Most (83%; 405/488) were aged 40–59 years; 60% (285/472) were overweight or obese. Based on self-report, 22% (107/488) were currently smokers. Almost half (44%) 213/488) reported daily consumption of vegetables and 65% (319/488) exercised regularly and 39% (190/488) reported treatment for another chronic disease. The leading comorbid conditions were hypertension (32%; 158/488) and diabetes mellitus (5%; 24/488). Risk factors for hypertension included age 60 years and older (relative risk [RR]: 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29–2.30) diabetes (RR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.08–1.87), overweight (RR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.03–1.69) and obesity (RR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.32–2.17).

Conclusion: There is a high prevalence, both of risk factors for NCDs and multimorbidity (> 1 chronic disease) in patients who are ≥ 40 years and virologically suppressed on ART.


Keywords

NCD; PLWH; hypertension; diabetes; chronic diseases

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