Original Research

A window into a public program for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV: Evidence from a prospective clinical trial

M Cotton, S Kim, H Rabie, J Coetzee, S Nachman
Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine | Vol 10, No 4 | a257 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhivmed.v10i4.257 | © 2009 M Cotton, S Kim, H Rabie, J Coetzee, S Nachman | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 15 December 2009 | Published: 14 December 2009

About the author(s)

M Cotton, KIDKRU
S Kim,
H Rabie,
J Coetzee,
S Nachman,

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Abstract

Objectives
To evaluate efficacy of the antenatal, intra-partum and post-natal antiretroviral components of a public service Prevention of Mother to Child (MTCT) program in infants.
Design
Analysis of prospectively collected screening data of demographic and MTCT-related interventions and HIV-infection status of infants identified through HIV-specific DNA polymerase chain reaction.
Setting
Tygerberg Children’s Hospital, Western Cape Province, South Africa.
Subjects
HIV-infected women and their infants identified through participation in a public service MTCT program were referred for possible participation in a prospective study of isoniazid prophylaxis.
Interventions
Key components of the Program include voluntary counselling and testing, zidovudine to the mother from between 28 and 34 weeks gestation and to the newborn infant for the first week, single dose nevirapine to the mother in labour and the newborn shortly after birth and free formula for 6 months.
Main Outcome Measures
Number and percentage of HIV-infected infants and extent of exposure to antenatal, intrapartum and post-natal antiretrovirals.
Results
Of 656 infants with a median age of 12.6 weeks, screened between April 1st 2005 through May 2006, 39 were HIV-infected giving a transmission rate of 5.9% (95% CI: 4.4% - 8.0%). Antenatal prophylaxis was significantly associated with reduced transmission (OR: 0.43 (95% CI: 0.21 - 0.94)) as opposed to intrapartum and postpartum components (p=0.85 and p=0.84, respectively). In multivariable analysis the antenatal component remained significant (OR=0.40 (95% CI 0.19 - 0.90)).
Conclusions
The antenatal phase is the most important antiretroviral component of the MTCT program, allowing most opportunity for intervention.

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Crossref Citations

1. Early Outcomes of HIV Exposed Children in the First District-wide Programme using Extended Regimens for the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV, in Yaounde, Cameroon
A. E. Njom Nlend, C. Same Ekobo, M. Bitoungui, B. Bagfegue Ekani, P. Tchokoteu, S. Lyeb, G. Chewa, S. Ndiang Tetang Moyo, P. Tchendjou Takam
Journal of Tropical Pediatrics  vol: 58  issue: 4  first page: 297  year: 2012  
doi: 10.1093/tropej/fmr100